In this session we are going to look at another fundamental class of collections, associative maps. Maps are special in Scala in the sense that they are both iterables and functions. We're going to explore the fundamental operations of maps and are going to apply them to somewhat larger example. Another fundamental collection type in Scala is the map. Maps have two type parameters, one represents the key of the map and the value of the map, so it's essentially a data structure that associates key of the key type with values of the value type. Here are two examples, the first is a map of Roman numerals that associates strings I, V, X with the numeric values one, five, and ten, and the others are map of countries which associates countries with their capitals. So let's see this in the worksheet, if I evaluate this then what I get is two immutable map, the first from character int, the second from string, two string. And they have the values that I have entered into them. So the first that I have defined would be of type Map[String, Int]. It associates an int value with a string key. And the second Map[String, String]. It associates a string representing a country with a string representing its capital. So maps are iterables. But in fact, maps are also functions, and that's because the Class Map[Key, Value] also extends the function type from keys to values. That means maps can be used everywhere functions can. In particular, maps can be applied to some arguments, so for instance capital of country of US is a well formed application, looks like a function call, but maps are function. So that would give us back Washington. But what would happen if we applied the function to a value that is not a key in the map? So, for instance, capitalOfCountry("Andorra"). Well, let's try out. So what we get is not surprising, an exception, [COUGH] which reads NoSuchElementException. The key, andorra, was not found in the map. So, what can we do to query a map, without knowing whether it contains a given key, or not? In fact, what we do here is, instead of having a simple function application, we can call a GetMethod on the map. So, if we do that, then what we get here is a so-called option value. And it reads none, so it would say, well, it hasn't found anything that matches andorra. Whereas if we wrote, say, capitalOfCountry get "US", we would get another option value, which now read, some(Washington). So it's time to have a closer look at what these option values are. So in fact option is another standard type in this kind of libraries. Here is its complete definition. Option is a trait, it has type perimeter. And there is one case class and one object that was extended. So the case class is called Some, and it takes a value and it is an extension of Option[A], and None extends Option[Nothing]. So that means that an Option value can be one of two things. It can be a None, which means nothing was found. Or it can be a Some(x), where x is of type A here. And that means that something was found, and the thing that was found is the x here. Since options are defined as case classes, they can be decomposed using pattern matching. So if we wanted, let's say, to show the capital of a country without throwing a key not found exception, we could do something like this. We could get the country from the map capital of country and then, we could match the resulting option value. If it's Some(capital), we return the capital, if it's None, we return the string called missing data. And then, if we do showCapital("US"), we would get back Washington whereas, if we did showCapital("Andorra"), we would get back missing data. Options also support quite a few operations of the other collections. In particular, they support Map, flatMap, and filter, so you can run for expressions over them. And I invite you to play with them, and try out what you can do with them. For the examples that follow, we need two more operations of collections that both have analogs in queries. In SQL, these operations would be called groupBy and orderBy. orderBy orders the collection according to some criteria that can be expressed in the Scala libraries with methods called sortWith or sorted. So let's say we have a list of fruit here, and we want to sort it such that fruit with shorter names appear before fruit with longer names. So that we could write fruit sortWith and then our criterion is that the length of the first fruit must be smaller than the length of the second fruit. So that would lead to the following result, ("pear", "apple", "orange", "pineapple"). Or we could just sort a collection with the natural ordering that's called sorted. Natural ordering here is lexicographic so that would lead to the list that you see here. The other operation I want to cover is groupBy, which is directly available on Scala collections. What it does is that it partitions a collection into a map of collections according to some discriminative function. That's best seen by an example. So let's take my fruit list, and let's group it by head. So head would be the character that appears first in each of these strings. So what that gives me is a map that associates each head character, so p, a and o, that's the three, with internal list of all those fruit that have that character as the head. So p would now map to List(pear, pineapple). A would map to List(apple) and o would map to List(orange). So, let's do a more involved example using maps. What I want to do is look at the polynomials. A polynomial can be seen as a map from exponents to coefficients. For example, x3- 2x + 5 could be represented with a map that says at exponent 0, we will have a 5, at exponent 1 we have a -2, and exponent 3 we have a 1. Based on this observation, let's design design a class Polynom that represents polynomials as maps. So what I have here is a new worksheet that for every given the rough framework of this class of polynomials. So let's say each polynomial should take as a parameter and field, a Map from exponent Int to coefficient Double. And what I want to implement is a plus operation on polynomial. So let's turn to that. How would I add let's say two polynomials like this one here, and this one here. So what we need to do is we need to merge coefficients that have the same exponent. So what we would expect here is a polynomial where which had 0 was mapped to 3, 1 was mapped to 2, 3 was mapped to the sum of 4 and 7, so that would be 11 and 5 was mapped to 6.2. So how can I achieve that? Well, one idea would be I take one of the maps and then I add the adjusted coefficient of each of the second maps to it. Adding means replacing the binding of the same coefficient in the left map. So to define addition of two polynomials, what I can do is I can take the first map and try to add all the elements of the second map to it. Let's see how I would do that. Take the first map, so that's terms. Add I will try to achieve with concatenation. So I would take the terms of the other and that would give me a new map and I just have to wrap that in a polygon. Let's see what that would give. Wow, not much yet because my map doesn't really print very well. We just get the default output which just says it's a polynomial. So maybe let's work first on a good two string function of polynomial, we'll get back to addition afterwards. So to add a polynomial into a string, what could I do? Well, one thing to do it is I can take all the terms that I have and I convert each term into a nice expression with coefficient and exponent. So let's try to do that. I would have a for expression that takes the exponent and coefficient of each term in my terms list. And it would yield the coefficient followed by an x that's my variable, followed by an up arrow representing exponent followed by the exponent. And then I just have to concatenate all these elements together. With a + in the middle, so let's see how we're doing. Now we get something nicer, we get the polynomials that we can read here. One thing we notice is that they are not yet sorted. They can appear in any order. For instance, the last one starts 1,3,5,0 so we would like to have the terms in sorted order with the highest coming first. So one idea here would be to say, well take the terms, convert them to a list because we need a sequence to sort them, sort them, so that goes from small to large and reverse them in the end. So, terms to list, sorted, reverse, let's see what we get now. So, now the things are nicely sorted, 5, 3, 1, 0. On the other hand, unfortunately the result is far from being correct. Let's see what we did here. We have the first exponent from the first polynomial, that's fine. Then we have cube term from the second polynomial but in fact what we really need is the the sum of the two cube terms in both polynomials. So what happened here is with the operation ++, what we did really was just to essentially superimpose the terms of the other polynomial on top of this one. So if the left polynomial didn't have a term with a given exponent, that was okay, we would just take the term of others and it would be correct. But if it did have a term with the same polynomial that time would be lost. What we need to do instead is, have a function that in that case would add together the two coefficients. So how would we go about doing that? Well, the best way to do it almost always in function programming is break it out into its own simple function. So we would say well, let's go over the other terms. And essentially map, call this adjust, for adjust the coefficient and that's a function we'll have to define. So we define adjust and that takes a term, so that would be a term and that's a pair of an int and a double. And we want it to return the adjusted term, again, a pair of an int of a double. So what do we need to do here? Well, we need to see whether the key of the term is already in the left map. So let's maybe pull out the key. So we say, val (exp, coeff) = term, so now we have nicely the two sides in a variable each by themselves. So what we must do now is find out whether the existing terms have already a coefficient that matches exponents. So let's do that. We say terms get exp match. In the case where this is yield Some(coeff1) say, we return a pair or a binding that goes from the exp to coeff + coeff1. And if there was nothing in the map, then we return the binding that goes from the exp to just the coeff of the second map. What we did here is that the arrow and the plus have the same precedence. But we need to put the parenthesis here like that, because of course we want to have the exponent map to the sum of the two coefficients. Okay, so now what we see is that the cube coefficient here reads 11, that's what we need. Good, so we're done with the addition, but it felt kind of heavyweight to do all this computation. Is there a simpler way? Well, indeed there is. So far, maps were always partial functions. Applying a map to a key value could lead to an exception if the key was not stored in the map. What if we could make map's total functions that would never fail, but would give us back some default value if the key wasn't found. There’s an operation that does that, it's called withDefaultValue and that operation turns a map into a total function. So if you had written for instance cap1 = capitalOfCountry withDefaultValue "<unknown>", then we could have safely applied cap1("Andorra") and we would have gotten back "<unknown>" because that's with a default value. No more key note found, exceptions. So let's apply this technique to our worksheet. What I will do is that I will instead of having a terms field, I just call this a term zero parameter. That will create a new field, terms, which is terms0 withDefaultValue 0.0. So now all my polynomials have maps that have a default value. We can try to test that by calling p1, first polynomial, .terms of some exponent that's missing. And we would get back a 0.0 instead of the exception that we would have expected to see before. With the new map with default values, we can greatly simplify the adjust function. We need no longer test where the terms contains are given exponent or not. Can delete all that, and replace it with a simple return expression that says, I have given the exponent. I associated with the coefficient of my second map plus whatever the coefficient was in my first map, and that would be just terms of exponent. And I get back the same polynomials as before. So you see there's great power in working with maps that have default values. Often the code that deals with them can be greatly simplified. So far so good But there's still something slightly un-nice about that, and that's the way we had to create polygons. You wrote new Poly and then we have to pass a map into each polygon. Is there a nicer way that ideally would let us avoid the intermediary data structure, so ideally we could just write Poly of 1220, 3240, 5262. But for the moment of course, that doesn't work, because Poly takes a map as parameters and here we have what, well we have three pairs of int. And double elements. The problem of course is that we could have three, but we could have also four or any other number, of pairs that we pass as parameters to pulley. So we need a way to pass a varying number of parameters to the same function. In fact Scala does offer that ability with its use of repeated parameters. Now, let's show this with an auxiliary constructor in class Poly. We haven't seem them since week three, so it's a good time to refresh, so that auxiliary constructor would take a sequence of bindings. Each binding is a pair of Int and Double and the fact that it's a sequence is expressed. By the star here, so the star means it's a repeated parameter, that means we can pass an arbitrary number of concrete arguments for this form of parameter here. Internally, all the arguments are represented as a sequence. So that means that if we call now the primary constructor. What we can pass along is arguments that simply the sequence converted to a map. So if we do that then the spreadsheet compiles again and we get the same polynomials as before. We can also get rid of the map of course and the other cause to polynomial. So here's the final implementation of polynomials. As an exercise, I would like you to tweak this a little bit. So here we have expressed the addition operation with a concatenation of the terms of the two Maps where the second terms were adjusted. It is also possible to express the same operation with a foldLeft. And I'd like you to do that in the exercise. So what I'd like you to do is write plus as follows, it takes another polynomial, and creates a new polynomial where the, you apply a foldLeft operation. To the other terms as a collection and you have to figure out what the unit element here is, with an operation addTerm as the combining operation. And again, addTerm, I would like you to implement. Once you've done that, you are able to answer the following question. Which of the two versions do you believe is more efficient? The version using ++, or the version using foldLeft? So let's see how we would solve this problem in the worksheet here. So I'm going to start to work on the implementation of plus. We said it should have been other.terms foldLeft with some zero element. So what would that be? Well I'm going to argue it must be terms, because if other terms is empty, then clearly we want to return terms. So the zero element will be terms here, and the combining operation will be called add term. So I have to work on this one now. So addTerm takes now a zero element, so that's terms, a Map of Int and Double. And it takes a term that's taken from the other.terms list here, which is a pair of Int of Double. And again, it returns another map of Int and Double. So what would its implementation be? Well, in fact, we don't need to change much from what it was. So, all we need to do is that instead of returning a single binding, we immediately add this binding to the given terms Map. So we would return terms + the binding that we've seen here. And that does it, so everything compiles and we get the same results as before. So now to answer the question, which of the two versions is more efficient? So, I would argue the one with foldLeft is more efficient because what happens here is that each of these bindings will be immediately added to our terms Maps so, we build up the result directly, whereas before, we would create another list of terms that contain the adjusted terms and then we would concatenate this list to the original one. So the version with foldLeft avoids this creation of the intermediate list data structure, so in that sense. It looks like it's more efficient. So I would vote here for foldLeft.